Dental Materials for Temporary Dressings, Cements, and Lining
– Temporary dressings:
Zinc oxide eugenol is a common temporary dressing material that is bactericidal and easy to remove.
– Eugenol, derived from oil of cloves, has an obtundant effect on the tooth and decreases toothache.
– It is contraindicated if the final restorative material is composite.
– Kalzinol and Sedanol are examples of brands of zinc oxide eugenol.
– Temporary dressings are used to protect the pulp canal system during root canal therapy.
– Cements:
– Dental cements are used to bond indirect restorations like crowns to the natural tooth surface.
– Examples of dental cements include zinc oxide cement, zinc phosphate cement, and glass ionomer cement.
– Zinc oxide cement is self-setting and hardens when in contact with saliva.
– Zinc polycarboxylate cement adheres to enamel and dentin.
– Resin-based cement and copper-based cement are also used in dental restorations.
– Impression materials:
– Dental impressions are negative imprints of teeth and oral soft tissues used in various dental procedures.
– Impression materials vary in rigidity to obtain accurate impressions.
– Sodium alginate, polyether, and silicones are common dental impression materials.
– Plaster of Paris, zinc oxide eugenol, and agar were historically used as impression materials.
– Dental impressions are used in prosthodontics, orthodontics, restorative dentistry, dental implantology, and oral and maxillofacial surgery.
– Lining materials:
– Dental lining materials are placed between the remaining tooth structure and the restoration material.
– They protect the dentinal tubules and sensitive pulp, reducing post-operative hypersensitivity.
– Lining materials also act as an insulating layer, protecting the pulp from temperature changes.
– They prevent corrosion by galvanic cell when dissimilar metals are placed next to each other.
– Some examples of lining materials include calcium hydroxide, calcium silicate-based liners, and polycarboxylate cement.
– Types of lining materials:
– Calcium hydroxide is a lining material that stimulates the formation of secondary dentine.
– It has a low compressive strength and is often used in combination with other materials.
– Calcium silicate-based liners are preferred for their bioactive and sealing properties.
– Polycarboxylate cement forms a strong bond with dentin and enamel, releasing fluoride.
– Glass ionomer has the strongest compressive and tensile strength among lining materials.

Types of Dental Restorative Materials
– Amalgam: metallic filling material composed of a mixture of mercury and a powdered alloy
– Composite resin: mixture of nanoparticles or powdered glass and plastic resin
– Glass ionomer cement: restorative material with fluoride release and acid-base content
– Zinc oxide eugenol: lining material with low compressive and tensile strength
– Radiopaque materials: added to dental materials for visibility and detection

Physical Properties of Dental Restorative Materials
– Low thermal conductivity and expansion
– Resistance to forces and wear such as attrition and abrasion
– Resistance to chemical erosion
– Good bonding strength to the tooth
– Withstand everyday masticatory forces and conditions without fatigue

Biocompatibility and Aesthetics of Dental Restorative Materials
– Biocompatibility: coexistence with biological equilibrium of the tooth and body systems
– Common problems include chemical leakage, pulpal irritation, and allergic reactions
– Aesthetics: matching surrounding tooth structure in shade, translucency, and texture
– Tooth-colored fillings for cosmetic purposes
– Consideration of aesthetics in material selection

Application, Failure, and Evaluation of Dental Restorative Materials
– Application: direct restorations placed directly into a cavity on a tooth
– Factors affecting the longevity of fillings
– Failure of dental restorations: composites showing a higher failure rate than amalgam over five to seven years
– Evaluation and regulation of dental materials: conducted by organizations like the Nordic Institute of Dental Materials (NIOM) and regulatory bodies like the FDA
– Ongoing research and advancements in dental materials contribute to the improvement of dental treatments.

Dental material (Wikipedia)

Dental products are specially fabricated materials, designed for use in dentistry. There are many different types of dental products, and their characteristics vary according to their intended purpose.

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