Introduction to the Periodontium
– The periodontium refers to the structures that surround, support, and protect the teeth.
– It consists mainly of the gingival tissue and the supporting bone.
– The periodontium plays a crucial role in maintaining the stability and health of the teeth.
– It includes the enamel, dentine, alveolar bone, oral epithelium, attached gingiva, and periodontal ligament.
– The periodontium is essential for proper chewing, speaking, and maintaining the aesthetics of the smile.

The Gingivae
– The gingivae are the soft tissues and connective fibers that cover and protect the underlying structures of the teeth.
– They are categorized into three anatomical groups: free, attached, and interdental gingiva.
– The gingivae help protect against mechanical and bacterial destruction.
– Normal gingiva can vary in color from light coral pink to heavily pigmented.
– The gingivae play a crucial role in maintaining the health and integrity of the periodontium.

Free Gingiva
– The free gingiva refers to the tissues that sit above the alveolar bone crest.
– The gingival margin is the fibrous tissue that surrounds the tooth at the cemento-enamel junction.
– The gingival sulcus is a natural space between the tooth and the free gingiva.
– A healthy gingival sulcus is typically 0.5-3mm in depth.
– The gingival sulcus is lined by a non-keratinized layer called the oral sulcular epithelium.

Attached Gingiva
– The attached gingiva is tightly bound to the underlying periodontium, including the cementum and alveolar bone.
– The junctional epithelium is a collar-like band that separates the free and attached gingiva.
– The junctional epithelium acts as a protective barrier against microorganisms.
Collagen fibers in the attached gingiva vary in length and width.
– The attached gingiva dissipates functional and masticatory stresses on the gingival tissues.

Interdental Gingiva
– The interdental gingiva fills the space between two adjacent teeth.
– It is normally triangular or pyramidal in shape.
– The interdental papillae, both lingual and facial, form the borders and tip of the interdental gingiva.
– The center of the interdental papilla is made up of attached gingiva.
– The col is a concave depression that lies beneath the interdental papillae.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
periodontology (noun)
- periodontics
Periodontology (Wikipedia)

Periodontology or periodontics (from Ancient Greek περί, perí – 'around'; and ὀδούς, odoús – 'tooth', genitive ὀδόντος, odóntos) is the specialty of dentistry that studies supporting structures of teeth, as well as diseases and conditions that affect them. The supporting tissues are known as the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), alveolar bone, cementum, and the periodontal ligament. A periodontist is a dentist that specializes in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease and in the placement of dental implants.

Occupation type
Activity sectors
Education required
Dental degree
Fields of
Hospitals, private practices
Periodontology (Wiktionary)



periodontology (uncountable)

  1. (dentistry) Periodontics


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