Etymology and History
– The word ‘psychology’ derives from the Greek word ‘psyche,’ meaning spirit or soul.
– The term ‘psychology’ comes from the Greek word ‘-λογία,’ which means study or research.
– The word ‘psychology’ was first used in the Renaissance.
– In its Latin form ‘psychiologia,’ it was first employed by the Croatian humanist Marko Marulić.
– The earliest known reference to the word ‘psychology’ in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694.
– Ancient civilizations like Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia studied psychology.
– Greek philosophers, including Thales, Plato, and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind.
Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical causes.
– Plato suggested that the brain is where mental processes take place.
– Aristotle suggested that the heart is the center of mental processes.

Subject Matter and Practitioners
– Psychology studies the mind and behavior of humans and nonhumans.
– It includes conscious and unconscious phenomena.
– Mental processes such as thoughts, feelings, and motives are part of psychology.
– Psychology is an academic discipline that crosses boundaries between natural and social sciences.
– Biological psychologists study the emergent properties of brains and link psychology to neuroscience.
– Psychologists are professional practitioners or researchers in the field.
– Some psychologists are classified as behavioral or cognitive scientists.
– Psychologists study the role of mental functions in behavior.
– Others explore physiological and neurobiological processes underlying cognitive functions and behaviors.
– Psychologists conduct research on perception, cognition, emotion, intelligence, and personality.

Applications and Development
– Psychology is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems.
– It is also used to understand and solve problems in various spheres of human activity.
– Many psychologists practice psychotherapy in clinical, counseling, or school settings.
– Some psychologists conduct scientific research on mental processes and behavior.
– Psychologists work in academic, industrial, organizational, and other settings.
– Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.
– Gustav Fechner conducted psychophysics research and developed the Weber-Fechner law.
– Hermann von Helmholtz conducted research on sensory perception.
– Paul Flechsig and Emil Kraepelin established a psychology-related laboratory in Leipzig.
– Hermann Ebbinghaus pioneered the experimental study of memory.

International Spread and Consolidation
– Psychologists in Germany, Denmark, Austria, England, and the United States established laboratories.
– G. Stanley Hall founded an influential psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins University.
– Yujiro Motora brought experimental psychology to the Imperial University of Tokyo.
– Narendra Nath Sen Gupta founded a psychology department and laboratory at the University of Calcutta.
– Psychology programs and research spread to various countries, including Argentina and Russia.
РLa Soci̩t̩ de Psychologie Physiologique was one of the earliest psychology societies.
– The International Congress of Psychology began in 1889 and continued with international participation.
– The American Psychological Association (APA) was founded in 1892.
Psychology gained status in the U.S. during World War I through mental testing.
– The Rockefeller family and foundations provided funding for behavioral research and mental hygiene.

Influence and Regulation
– Rockefeller foundations supported research on sexuality through Alfred Kinsey.
– The eugenics movement influenced American psychology in the early 20th century.
– Psychology faced antagonism in the UK from scientific and medical establishments.
– The U.S. military and intelligence agencies funded psychology research during World War II and the Cold War.
– Propaganda research became significant during the war, with social psychologists involved in shaping policies.
– Psychologists played significant roles in managing the domestic economy.
РThe Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute was renamed the G̦ring Institute under Nazi rule.
– Freudian psychoanalysts were expelled and persecuted due to anti-Jewish policies.
РThe G̦ring Institute aimed to create a New German Psychotherapy to align Germans with the goals of the Reich.
– Alexander Mitscherlich founded the applied psychoanalysis journal ‘Psyche’ and established the first clinical psychosomatic medicine division.
Psychology was integrated into the required studies of medical students.
– Chinese psychology initially modeled itself on U.S. psychology, with a focus on education and language learning.
– Governments in some places legally regulate who can provide psychological services.
– The APA defines a psychologist as someone with a doctoral degree in psychology.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
psychology (noun)
the science of mind and behavior
a) the mental or behavioral characteristics of an individual or group
b) the study of mind and behavior in relation to a particular field of knowledge or activity
a theory or system of psychology - Freudian psychology the psychology of Jung
Psychology (Wikipedia)

Psychology is the study of mind and behavior. Its subject matter includes the behavior of humans and nonhumans, both conscious and unconscious phenomena, and mental processes such as thoughts, feelings, and motives. Psychology is an academic discipline of immense scope, crossing the boundaries between the natural and social sciences. Biological psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, linking the discipline to neuroscience. As social scientists, psychologists aim to understand the behavior of individuals and groups.

A professional practitioner or researcher involved in the discipline is called a psychologist. Some psychologists can also be classified as behavioral or cognitive scientists. Some psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior. Others explore the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists are involved in research on perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, subjective experiences, motivation, brain functioning, and personality. Psychologists' interests extend to interpersonal relationships, psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas within social psychology. They also consider the unconscious mind. Research psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. Some, but not all, clinical and counseling psychologists rely on symbolic interpretation.

While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts, psychology ultimately aims to benefit society. Many psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing psychotherapy in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Other psychologists conduct scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior. Typically the latter group of psychologists work in academic settings (e.g., universities, medical schools, or hospitals). Another group of psychologists is employed in industrial and organizational settings. Yet others are involved in work on human development, aging, sports, health, forensic science, education, and the media.

Psychology (Wiktionary)



From French psychologie, from Renaissance Latin psychologia, from Ancient Greek ψυχή (psukhḗ, soul) + -λογία (-logía, study of), equivalent to psycho- +‎ -logy. The Latin term is believed by some

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