Tooth Preparation and Restorative Materials
– Tooth preparation involves cutting the tooth to make space for restorative materials and remove decay.
– Materials used for tooth preparation include gold, amalgam, dental composites, glass ionomer cement, or porcelain.
– Direct restorations involve placing a soft or malleable filling into the prepared tooth and building it up.
– Different filling options are available based on the location and severity of the cavity.
– Dental restorative materials include alloys, ceramics, composites, and glass ionomer cement.

Indirect Restorations
– Indirect restorations are fabricated outside the mouth using dental impressions.
– Common types include inlays, onlays, crowns, bridges, and veneers.
– They are usually bonded permanently with dental cement.
– Removable dental prostheses can also be considered indirect restorations.
CAD/CAM technology can be used for chairside fabrication of indirect restorations.

Cavity Classifications
– GV Black classification categorizes cavities based on their site, such as occlusal, proximal, or gingival surfaces.
– Graham J. Mounts classification considers both site and size of the cavity.
– Class I cavities affect pit and fissure surfaces, while Class II affects proximal surfaces of molars and premolars.
– Class III cavities affect proximal surfaces of centrals, laterals, and cuspids.
– Class IV cavities affect proximal and incisal edges of anterior teeth.

Dental Restorative Materials
– Amalgams are alloys formed by a reaction between two or more metals, one of which is mercury.
– Direct gold fillings were used in the past but are rarely used today due to expense and specialized training requirements.
– Dental composites, also known as white fillings, are used for direct restorations, minor buildup, and filling in small gaps between teeth.
– Glass ionomer cement is commonly used as a direct filling material and for luting indirect restorations.
– Other restorative materials include porcelain, metal alloys, and ceramics.

Complications and Dental Implants
– Dental implants are anchors made from titanium or titanium alloy that support dental restorations.
– Complications of dental restorations include irritation of the nerve and weakening of the tooth structure.
Root canal treatment may be considered if the nerve irritation persists.
– Larger amounts of tooth structure loss or filling material replacement can weaken the tooth, increasing the risk of tooth fracturing.
– Dental implants can be used for restorative applications such as crowns, bridges, and dental prostheses.

Dental restoration (Wikipedia)

Dental restoration, dental fillings, or simply fillings are treatments used to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure resulting from caries or external trauma as well as to the replacement of such structure supported by dental implants. They are of two broad types—direct and indirect—and are further classified by location and size. A root canal filling, for example, is a restorative technique used to fill the space where the dental pulp normally resides.

Dental restoration
ICD-9-CM23.2-23.4
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