Characteristics and Discovery of Titanium
- Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
- It is found in nature as an oxide and can be reduced to produce a lustrous transition metal.
- Titanium has a silver color, low density, and high strength.
- It is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.
- Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, in 1791 by William Gregor.

Physical Properties of Titanium
- Titanium has a high strength-to-weight ratio and is recognized for its strength.
- It is a strong metal with low density and is ductile in an oxygen-free environment.
- Titanium is lustrous and metallic-white in color.
- It has a relatively high melting point of 1,668°C (3,034°F) and is paramagnetic.
- Titanium has low electrical and thermal conductivity compared to other metals.

Chemical Properties of Titanium
- Titanium forms a thin non-porous passivation layer when exposed to air, protecting it from further oxidation or corrosion.
- It is resistant to oxidizing acids but dissolves in dilute hydrofluoric acid, hot hydrochloric acid, and hot sulfuric acid.
- Titanium can withstand attack by dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, chloride solutions, and most organic acids.
- However, it is corroded by concentrated acids.
- Titanium has excellent resistance to corrosion against oxidizing acids.

Extraction, Compounds, and Alloys of Titanium
- Titanium is extracted from its principal mineral ores using the Kroll and Hunter processes.
- The most common compound is titanium dioxide, which is used in the manufacture of white pigments.
- Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride, used in smoke screens and catalysts, and titanium trichloride, used as a catalyst in polypropylene production.
- Titanium can be alloyed with other elements like iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum to produce strong, lightweight alloys.
- These alloys are used in aerospace, military, industrial, automotive, medical, and other applications.

Uses and Applications of Titanium
- Titanium alloys are used in aerospace for jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft.
- They are also used in military applications, industrial processes, automotive industry, agriculture, and medical prostheses.
- Titanium is used in orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments, dental implants, and sporting goods.
- It is used in the manufacture of jewelry, mobile phones, and other consumer products.
- The corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio of titanium make it highly useful in various applications.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
titanium (noun)
a silvery-gray light strong metallic element obtained from ilmenite and rutile and used especially in alloys and combined in refractory materials, pigments, and coatings - see element table
Titanium (Wikipedia)

Titanium is a chemical element; it has symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Found in nature only as an oxide, it can be reduced to produce a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength, resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

Titanium, 22Ti
Appearancesilvery grey-white metallic
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Ti)
Titanium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Atomic number (Z)22
Groupgroup 4
Periodperiod 4
Block  d-block
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 10, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1941 K ​(1668 °C, ​3034 °F)
Boiling point3560 K ​(3287 °C, ​5949 °F)
Density (at 20° C)4.502 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)4.11 g/cm3
Heat of fusion14.15 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization425 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.060 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1982 2171 (2403) 2692 3064 3558
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.54
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 658.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1309.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2652.5 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 147 pm
Covalent radius160±8 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of titanium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp) (hP2)
Lattice constants
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for titanium
a = 295.05 pm
c = 468.33 pm (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion9.68×10−6/K (at 20 °C)
Thermal conductivity21.9 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity420 nΩ⋅m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Molar magnetic susceptibility+153.0×10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)
Young's modulus116 GPa
Shear modulus44 GPa
Bulk modulus110 GPa
Speed of sound thin rod5090 m/s (at r.t.)
Poisson ratio0.32
Mohs hardness6.0
Vickers hardness830–3420 MPa
Brinell hardness716–2770 MPa
CAS Number7440-32-6
DiscoveryWilliam Gregor (1791)
First isolationJöns Jakob Berzelius (1825)
Named byMartin Heinrich Klaproth (1795)
Isotopes of titanium
Main isotopes Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
44Ti synth 59.1 y ε 44Sc
46Ti 8.25% stable
47Ti 7.44% stable
48Ti 73.7% stable
49Ti 5.41% stable
50Ti 5.18% stable
 Category: Titanium
| references

Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of minerals, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere; it is found in almost all living things, as well as bodies of water, rocks, and soils. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter processes. The most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.

Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements. The resulting titanium alloys are strong, lightweight, and versatile, with applications including aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agriculture (farming), sporting goods, jewelry, and consumer electronics. Titanium is also considered one of the most biocompatible metals, leading to a range of medical applications including prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental implants, and surgical instruments.

The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element. In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but less dense. There are two allotropic forms and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%).

Titanium (Wiktionary)



From Titan +‎ -ium.



titanium (countable and uncountable, plural titaniums)

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