Types of Prostheses
– Transradial prosthesis
– Aesthetic functional device
– Myoelectric device
– Body-powered device
– Activity-specific device

Craniofacial Prostheses
– Intra-oral prostheses (dental prostheses, such as dentures, obturators, and dental implants)
– Extra-oral prostheses (hemifacial, auricular, nasal, orbital, ocular)

Neck Prostheses
– Larynx substitutes
– Trachea replacements
– Upper esophageal replacements

Torso Prostheses
– Breast prostheses (single or bilateral, full breast devices, nipple prostheses)

Penile Prostheses
– Treatment for erectile dysfunction
– Correction of penile deformity
– Phalloplasty procedures in cisgender men
– Building a new penis in female-to-male gender reassignment surgeries

– Prosthetics originated in ancient Egypt and Iran around 3000 BCE.
– The earliest recorded mention of eye prosthetics is from ancient Egypt.
– Ancient Iran had the earliest archaeological evidence of prosthetics.
– The Egyptians were pioneers of foot prosthetics, as shown by a wooden toe found in a body from the New Kingdom.
– The Greek historian Herodotus mentioned a Greek diviner who replaced his own foot with a wooden prosthetic.
– The oldest functional leg prosthesis known is a wooden one from circa 300 BCE.
– Iron prosthetic hands and mechanical hands were used in ancient times.
– The Romans and Greeks also used prosthetics, including bronze crowns and a famous arm prosthetic.
– The earliest confirmed use of a prosthetic device is from 950 to 710 BC in ancient Egypt.
– Prosthetics during the Middle Ages were basic and mainly used by debilitated knights.
– Ambroise Paré made advancements in amputation surgery and prosthetic design.
– Pieter Verduyn created the first non-locking below-knee prosthesis.
– James Potts developed a prosthesis with a wooden shank, steel knee joint, and articulated foot.
– Sir James Syme introduced a new method of ankle amputation.
– Benjamin Palmer improved upon the Anglesey Leg with added features for natural movement.
– After World War II, the NAS advocated for better research and development of prosthetics.
– The quadrilateral socket was developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
– John Sabolich invented the Contoured Adducted Trochanteric-Controlled Alignment Method (CATCAM) socket.
– Socket technology improved by locking in the bony anatomy and distributing weight evenly.
– The first microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees became available in the early 1990s.
– The Intelligent Prosthesis, released in 1993, was the first commercially available microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee.
– An improved version, the Intelligent Prosthesis Plus, was released in 1995.
– The Adaptive Prosthesis, released in 1998, utilized hydraulic and pneumatic controls along with a microprocessor.
– Cost analysis reveals the advancements in prosthetics over time.
– Other individuals, such as Tim Staats, Chris Hoyt, and Frank Gottschalk, have contributed to socket development.
– DARPA started the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program in 2005.

Design Trends Moving Forward
– Prosthetic design trends aim for lighter, more durable, and flexible materials like carbon fiber, silicone, and advanced polymers.
– Bionics and Myoelectric technology are used in prosthetic design, allowing users to control their limbs using muscle contractions.
– Integration with AI enables prosthetic limbs to learn and adapt to users’ habits and preferences.
– AI-enabled prosthetic limbs make real-time adjustments for smoother and more natural motions.

Patient Procedure
– Prosthetists are responsible for the prescription, design, and management of prosthetic devices.
– Plaster casts are taken of the affected limb to create custom-formed thermoplastic sockets.
– Cutting-edge materials like carbon fiber, titanium, and Kevlar provide strength and durability to prostheses.
– Advanced electronics are integrated into prostheses for additional stability and control.
– Belts, cuffs, suction, or pin lock systems are used to attach the prosthetic limb to the residual limb.

Current Technology and Manufacturing
– Advancements in artificial limbs include the use of new materials like carbon fiber, making them stronger and lighter.
– Myoelectric limbs, controlled by converting muscle movements to electrical signals, are more common than cable-operated limbs.
– Computers are extensively used in the design and manufacture of artificial limbs.
– Artificial limbs can be attached using suction sockets or pin locks, providing better fit and reducing wear on the residual limb.
– Silicone liners are commonly used to create a better suction fit for artificial limbs.

Production of Prosthetic Socket
– The production of a prosthetic socket starts with capturing the geometry of the residual limb.
– Plaster casts or digital shape capture systems are used to create an accurate representation of the residual limb.
– Rectification involves modifying the model of the residual limb to add volume to pressure points and remove volume from load-bearing areas.
– The fabrication of the prosthetic socket involves wrapping the model with a semi-molten plastic sheet or carbon fiber coated with epoxy resin.
– Computerized models can be 3D printed using various materials with different flexibility and mechanical strength.

Upper-limb prosthetics
– Carbon fiber sockets or interfaces can be lined with compressible foam for comfort and padding.
– Self-suspending or supra-condylar socket designs are useful for below elbow absence.
– Longer limbs may require locking roll-on type inner liners or complex harnessing for suspension.
– Wrist units can be screw-on connectors or quick-release connectors.
– Two types of body-powered systems exist: voluntary opening and voluntary closing.

Group 12:

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
prosthesis (noun)
an artificial device to replace or augment a missing or impaired part of the body
Prosthesis (Wikipedia)

In medicine, a prosthesis (pl.: prostheses; from Ancient Greek: πρόσθεσις, romanizedprósthesis, lit.'addition, application, attachment'), or a prosthetic implant, is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or a condition present at birth (congenital disorder). Prostheses are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part. Amputee rehabilitation is primarily coordinated by a physiatrist as part of an inter-disciplinary team consisting of physiatrists, prosthetists, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists. Prostheses can be created by hand or with computer-aided design (CAD), a software interface that helps creators design and analyze the creation with computer-generated 2-D and 3-D graphics as well as analysis and optimization tools.

A man with a lower-extremity prosthesis
Prosthesis (Wiktionary)



Via Latin, from Ancient Greek πρόσθεσις (prósthesis, addition), from προστίθημι (prostíthēmi, I add), from πρός (prós, towards) + τίθημι (títhēmi

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