Types and Causes of Bleeding
– Upper head: Intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, ovarian bleeding
– Anus: Melena (upper gastrointestinal bleeding), hematochezia (lower gastrointestinal bleeding)
– Vascular: Ruptured aneurysm, aortic transection, iatrogenic injury
– Traumatic injury: Abrasion, excoriation, hematoma, laceration, incision, puncture wound, contusion, crushing injuries, ballistic trauma
– Medical condition: Intravascular changes, intramural changes, extravascular changes

Complications of Bleeding
– Exsanguination
– Hypovolemic shock
– Coma
– Shock

Hemostasis (Stopping or Controlling Bleeding)
– Importance in first aid and surgery
– Platelets and the coagulation system
– NSAIDs and increased bleeding risk
– Coagulation factors and deficiencies
– Von Willebrand disease and other bleeding disorders

Statistics and Key Points
– Healthy person can endure a loss of 10-15% of total blood volume without serious medical difficulties
– Blood donation typically takes 8-10% of the donor’s blood volume
– Internal bleeding can be hidden and may not be readily apparent
– Bleeding from bodily orifices may signal internal bleeding
– Bleeding from medical procedures can occur and falls under traumatic injury category

Diagnosis, Classification, and Management of Bleeding
– Dioxaborolane chemistry enables radioactive fluoride labeling of red blood cells, allowing for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of intracerebral hemorrhages
– Wound assessment is important in the diagnosis and imaging of hemorrhages
– A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common post-LASIK complication
– Hemosiderin-laden alveolar macrophages can be seen in a pulmonary hemorrhage
– Hemorrhaging is classified into four classes (Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV) based on the amount of blood loss and its impact on vital signs
– The American College of Surgeons uses a similar classification system for hypovolemic shock
– Class I hemorrhage involves up to 15% of blood volume and usually does not require fluid resuscitation
– Class II hemorrhage involves 15-30% of blood volume and may exhibit changes in vital signs and behavior
– Class III hemorrhage involves loss of 30-40% of circulating blood volume and requires fluid resuscitation with crystalloid and blood transfusion
– Class IV hemorrhage involves loss of 40% of circulating blood volume and aggressive resuscitation is necessary to prevent death
– There is no universally accepted definition of massive hemorrhage, but several criteria can be used to identify the condition
– The World Health Organization has developed a standardized grading scale to measure the severity of bleeding
– The severity of bleeding can be assessed based on the grade assigned

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
bleeding (adjective or adverb)
chiefly British - bloody used as an intensive
Merriam-Webster Online Thesaurus
Bleeding (Wikipedia)

Bleeding, hemorrhage, haemorrhage or blood loss is blood escaping from the circulatory system from damaged blood vessels. Bleeding can occur internally, or externally either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, vagina or anus, or through a puncture in the skin. Hypovolemia is a massive decrease in blood volume, and death by excessive loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination. Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties (by comparison, blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the donor's blood volume). The stopping or controlling of bleeding is called hemostasis and is an important part of both first aid and surgery.

Other namesHemorrhaging, haemorrhaging, blood loss
A bleeding wound in the finger
SpecialtyEmergency medicine, hematology
ComplicationsExsanguination, hypovolemic shock, coma, shock
Bleeding (Wiktionary)





  1. present participle and gerund of bleed


bleeding (not comparable

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