Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes
– Polyuria
– Thirst
– Weight loss
– Blurred vision
– Fatigue

Long-term Complications of Diabetes
– Cardiovascular disease
– Diabetic retinopathy
– Diabetic nephropathy
– Diabetic neuropathy
– Increased risk of gallstones

Types and Prevalence of Diabetes
– Type 1 diabetes (accounts for 5 to 10% of cases, most common in patients under 20 years)
– Type 2 diabetes (accounts for about 90% of cases)
– Hybrid forms of diabetes
– Hyperglycemia first detected during pregnancy
– Other specific types of diabetes
– Estimated 537 million people with diabetes worldwide in 2021
– Prevalence expected to increase to 783 million adults by 2045
– Prevalence increasing most dramatically in low- and middle-income nations
Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death globally

Diagnosis, Prevention, and Management of Diabetes
– Diagnosis: fasting plasma glucose level, plasma glucose level two hours after a glucose load, symptoms of high blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin level
– Prevention: islet autoimmunity, maintaining a normal body weight, physical activity, healthy diet
– Management: blood sugar control through dietary changes, exercise, weight loss, medications, attention to other health problems, specialized footwear

Lifestyle Factors, Complications, and Treatment Options
– Lifestyle factors and genetics as primary causes of type 2 diabetes
– Complications and impact of diabetes on birth weight, childhood experiences, antipsychotic medication, pancreas damage, double diabetes
– Lifestyle modifications for blood pressure control, weight loss, dietary patterns
– Other considerations such as foot examination, type 2 diabetes self-management interventions for those with severe mental illness, smoking cessation
– Medications for diabetes treatment, blood pressure lowering, and the use of aspirin
– Weight loss surgery and pancreas transplant as options for severe cases of diabetes

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
diabetes (noun)
any of various abnormal conditions characterized by the secretion and excretion of excessive amounts of urine , especially - diabetes mellitus
Diabetes (Wikipedia)

Diabetes mellitus, often known simply as diabetes, is a group of common endocrine diseases characterized by sustained high blood sugar levels. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body becoming unresponsive to the hormone's effects. Classic symptoms include thirst, polyuria, weight loss, and blurred vision. If left untreated, the disease can lead to various health complications, including disorders of the cardiovascular system, eye, kidney, and nerves. Untreated or poorly treated diabetes accounts for approximately 1.5 million deaths every year.

Diabetes mellitus
A hollow circle with a thick blue border and a clear centre
Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes
  • Metabolic imbalances
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Nerve and brain damage
  • Kidney failure
  • Gastrointestinal changes
DurationRemission may occur, but diabetes is often life-long
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Gestational diabetes
CausesInsulin insufficiency or gradual resistance
Risk factors
Diagnostic method
Frequency463 million (8.8%)
Deaths4.2 million (2019)

The major types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2, though other forms also exist. The most common treatment for type 1 is insulin replacement therapy (insulin injections), while anti-diabetic medications (such as metformin and semaglutide) and lifestyle modifications can be used to manage type 2. Gestational diabetes, a form that arises during pregnancy in some women, normally resolves shortly after delivery.

As of 2021, an estimated 537 million people had diabetes worldwide accounting for 10.5% of the adult population, with type 2 making up about 90% of all cases. It is estimated that by 2045, approximately 783 million adults, or 1 in 8, will be living with diabetes, representing a 46% increase from the current figures. The prevalence of the disease continues to increase, most dramatically in low- and middle-income nations. Rates are similar in women and men, with diabetes being the seventh leading cause of death globally. The global expenditure on diabetes-related healthcare is an estimated US$760 billion a year.

Diabetes (Wiktionary)



From Latin diabētēs (siphon), from Ancient Greek διαβήτης (diabḗtēs), from Ancient Greek διαβαίνω (diabaínō, to pass through).


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