Etymology and Terminology
– Britannia referred to the Roman province that encompassed modern England and Wales
– Great Britain encompassed the whole island, including modern Scotland
– Great Britain came into use to refer specifically to the island
– The Kingdom of Great Britain was formed in 1707
– The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland was established in 1927

Geography and Location
– The United Kingdom is located in Northwestern Europe
– It comprises England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland
– The UK includes the island of Great Britain and the northeastern part of Ireland
– Northern Ireland shares a land border with the Republic of Ireland
– The UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, and other bodies of water

History and Evolution
– The UK has evolved from annexations, unions, and separations of constituent countries
– The Treaty of Union in 1707 united England and Scotland as the Kingdom of Great Britain
– The union with Ireland in 1801 created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
– Most of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, forming the present United Kingdom
– The British Empire was the largest empire in history but declined after the World Wars

Government and Politics
– The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy
– The capital and largest city is London
– Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have their own devolved governments
– The UK has three distinct legal jurisdictions: England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland
– The UK is a permanent member of the UN Security Council and a member of various international organizations

Economy and Global Influence
– The UK has the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP
– It is ranked fourth globally in military expenditure
– British influence can be observed in the legal and political systems of former colonies
– The UK’s culture remains globally influential, particularly in literature, language, music, and sport
– English is the world’s most widely spoken language and the third-most spoken native language

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
United Kingdom (geographical name)
1.
country Europe in British Isles comprising Great Britain & Northern Ireland ✽ London 94,251 (244,110 ), 58,789,194 - W area square miles square kilometers pop
2.
country 1801–1921 comprising Great Britain & Ireland
United Kingdom (Wikipedia)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Northwestern Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. It includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and most of the smaller islands within the British Isles. Northern Ireland shares a land border with the Republic of Ireland; otherwise, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea, and the Irish Sea. The total area of the United Kingdom is 94,060 square miles (243,610 km2), with an estimated 2022 population of nearly 67 million people.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
A flag composed of a red cross edged in white and superimposed on a red saltire, also edged in white, superimposed on a white saltire on a blue background
Anthem: "God Save the King"
Coats of arms:

Used in relation to Scotland (right) and elsewhere (left)
Location of the United Kingdom (dark green)

in Europe (dark grey)

Capital
and largest city
London
51°30′N 0°7′W / 51.500°N 0.117°W / 51.500; -0.117
Official language
and national language
Regional and minority languages
Ethnic groups
(2011)
Demonym(s)
Constituent countries
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Charles III
Rishi Sunak
LegislatureParliament
House of Lords
House of Commons
Formation
1535 and 1542
24 March 1603
22 July 1706
1 May 1707
1 January 1801
5 December 1922
Area
• Total
243,610 km2 (94,060 sq mi) (78th)
• Water (%)
1.51 (2015)
Population
• 2022 estimate
Neutral decrease 66,971,395 (22nd)
• 2011 census
63,182,178 (22nd)
• Density
270.7/km2 (701.1/sq mi) (50th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.872 trillion (9th)
• Per capita
Increase $56,836 (30th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.332 trillion (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $48,913 (23rd)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 35.5
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.929
very high · 18th
CurrencyPound sterling (GBP)
Time zoneUTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time, WET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (British Summer Time, WEST)
Date format
  • dd/mm/yyyy
  • yyyy-mm-dd (AD)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+44
ISO 3166 codeGB
Internet TLD.uk

The United Kingdom has evolved from a series of annexations, unions and separations of constituent countries over several hundred years. The Treaty of Union between the Kingdom of England (which included Wales) and the Kingdom of Scotland in 1707 resulted in their unification to become the Kingdom of Great Britain. Its union in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Most of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which formally adopted its name in 1927. The nearby Isle of Man, Guernsey and Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown Dependencies, but the British government is responsible for their defence and international representation.

The UK became the first industrialised country and was the world's foremost power for the majority of the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly during the "Pax Britannica" between 1815 and 1914. The British Empire, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed almost a quarter of the world's landmass and population, and was the largest empire in history; however, its involvement in the First World War and the Second World War damaged Britain's economic power and a global wave of decolonisation led to the independence of most British colonies. British influence can be observed in the legal and political systems of many of its former colonies, and the UK's culture remains globally influential, particularly in literature, language, music and sport. English is the world's most widely spoken language and the third-most spoken native language.

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. The capital and largest city of the United Kingdom (as well as the capital of England) is London. The cities of Edinburgh, Cardiff, and Belfast are respectively the national capitals of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Other major cities include Birmingham, Manchester, Glasgow, and Leeds. The UK consists of three distinct legal jurisdictions: England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. This is due to these areas retaining their existing legal systems even after joining the UK. Since 1998, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland also have their own devolved governments and legislatures, each with varying powers.

The UK has the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), and the ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. It is a recognised nuclear state and is ranked fourth globally in military expenditure. The UK has been a permanent member of the UN Security Council since its first session in 1946. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the OECD, NATO, the Five Eyes, AUKUS and the CPTPP.


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